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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

Flag of Great Britain
Irish banner
1801–1927 Flag of the United Kingdom
Flag of Ireland
Flag of the United Kingdom Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom
Motto
Dieu et mon droit
Anthem
God Save the King
Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland (1922) Ulster banner
Flag of Ireland
CapitalLondon
Government Constitutional monarchy
Monarch
- 1801-1820George III
- 1820-1830George IV
- 1830-1837William IV
- 1837-1901Victoria
- 1901-1910Edward VII
- 1910-1927George V
Prime Minister
- 1801William Pitt the Younger
- 1801-1804Henry Addington
- 1804-1806William Pitt the Younger
- 1806-1807The Lord Grenville
- 1807-1809The Duke of Portland
- 1809-1812Spencer Perceval
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseHouse of Lords
- Lower houseHouse of Commons
History
January 1, 1801Act of Union
May 3, 1921Government of Ireland Act
December 6, 1922Anglo-Irish Treaty
April 12, 1927Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act
Area315,093 km²
Population
- 180116,345,646
 Density51.8/km²
CurrencyPound sterling
Flag of Great Britain Great Britain
Irish banner Ireland
United Kingdom Flag of the United Kingdom
Irish Free State Flag of Ireland
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is a constitutional monarchy (|) that was formed by the Act of Union (|) on January 1, 1801 that united the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom was composed of the constituent countries of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

A recurring issue in British politics during the 19th century was the question of home rule for Ireland. An Irish Republic was proclaimed in 1916 as a breakaway state, with a declaration of independence in 1919. On May 3, 1921 the British authorities divided the island into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, which were to be two autonomous regions within the United Kingdom. The solution was never accepted by the rebels and following the Anglo-Irish Treaty on December 6, 1921 the Irish Free State was established, effectively dividing the country. The northern part of the island was however to remain within the United Kingdom and to retain the far ranging autonomy in had received.

The old name continued in official use until April 12, 1927 when it was changed to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act.

History Edit

The legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was completed on January 1, 1801, under the name of the United Kingdom. However, armed struggle for independence continued sporadically into the 20th century. The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 established the Irish Free State. Six northern, predominantly Protestant, Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom.

Great Britain's industrial revolution greatly strengthened its ability to oppose Napoleonic France. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the United Kingdom was the foremost European power, and its navy ruled the seas. Peace in Europe allowed the British to focus their interests on more remote parts of the world, and, during this period, the British Empire reached its zenith. British colonial expansion reached its height largely during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). Queen Victoria's reign witnessed the spread of British technology, commerce, language, and government throughout the British Empire, which, at its greatest extent, encompassed roughly one-fifth to one-quarter of the world's area and population. British colonies contributed to the United Kingdom's extraordinary economic growth and strengthened its voice in world affairs. Even as the United Kingdom extended its imperial reach overseas, it continued to develop and broaden its democratic institutions at home.

By the time of Queen Victoria's death in 1901, other nations, including the United States and Germany, had developed their own industries; the United Kingdom's comparative economic advantage had lessened, and the ambitions of its rivals had grown. The losses and destruction of World War I (|), the depression of the 1930s, and decades of relatively slow growth eroded the United Kingdom's preeminent international position of the previous century.

Britain's control over its empire loosened during the interwar period. Ireland, with the exception of six northern counties, gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1921. Nationalism became stronger in other parts of the empire, particularly in India and Egypt.

In 1926, the United Kingdom, completing a process begun a century earlier, granted Australia, Canada, and New Zealand complete autonomy within the empire. They became charter members of the British Commonwealth, an informal but closely-knit association that succeeded the empire.[1]

Monarch Edit

  • George III (January 1, 1801 - January 29, 1820)
  • George IV (January 29, 1820 - June 26, 1830)
  • William IV (June 26, 1830 - June 22, 1837)
  • Victoria (June 22, 1837 - January 22, 1901)
  • Edward VII (January 22, 1901 - May 6, 1910)
  • George V (May 6, 1910 - April 12, 1927)

Prime Minister Edit

  • William Pitt the Younger (January 1, 1801 - March 14, 1801)
  • Henry Addington (March 14, 1801 - May 10, 1804)
  • William Pitt the Younger (May 10, 1804 - January 23, 1806)
  • The Lord Grenville (January 23, 1806 - March 31, 1807)
  • The Duke of Portland (March 31, 1807 - October 4, 1809)
  • Spencer Perceval (October 4, 1809 - May 11, 1812)
  • The Earl of Liverpool (May 11, 1812 - April 9, 1827)
  • George Canning (April 9, 1827 - August 8, 1827)
  • The Viscount Goderich (August 8, 1827 - January 21, 1828)
  • The Duke of Wellington (January 21, 1828 - November 16, 1830)
  • The Earl Grey (November 16, 1830 - July 9, 1834)
  • The Viscount Melbourne (July 9, 1834 - November 14, 1834)
  • Sir Robert Peel (November 14, 1834 - April 8, 1835)
  • The Viscount Melbourne (April 8, 1835 - August 30, 1841)
  • Sir Robert Peel (August 30, 1841 - June 29, 1846)
  • The Lord John Russell (June 29, 1846 - February 21, 1852)
  • The Earl of Derby (February 21, 1852 - December 17, 1852)
  • The Earl of Aberdeen (December 17, 1852 - January 30, 1855)
  • The Viscount Palmerston (January 30, 1855 - February 19, 1858)
  • The Earl of Derby (February 19, 1858 - June 11, 1859)
  • The Viscount Palmerston (June 11, 1859 - October 18, 1865)
  • The Earl Russell (October 18, 1865 - June 26, 1866)
  • The Earl of Derby (June 26, 1866 - February 25, 1868)
  • Benjamin Disraeli (February 25, 1868 - December 1, 1868)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (December 1, 1868 - February 17, 1874)
  • Benjamin Disraeli (February 17, 1874 - April 21, 1880)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (April 21, 1880 - June 9, 1885)
  • The Marquess of Salisbury (June 9, 1885 - January 28, 1886)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (January 28, 1886 - July 20, 1886)
  • The Marquess of Salisbury (July 20, 1886 - August 11, 1892)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (August 11, 1892 - March 2, 1894)
  • The Earl of Rosebery (March 2, 1894 - June 22, 1895)
  • The Marquess of Salisbury (June 22, 1895 - July 11, 1902)
  • Arthur Balfour (July 11, 1902 - December 5, 1905)
  • Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (December 5, 1905 - April 7, 1908)
  • Herbert Henry Asquith (April 7, 1908 - December 7, 1916)
  • David Lloyd George (December 7, 1916 - October 23, 1922)
  • Andrew Bonar Law (October 23, 1922 - May 22, 1923)
  • Stanley Baldwin (May 22, 1923 - January 22, 1924)
  • Ramsay MacDonald (January 22, 1924 - November 4, 1924)
  • Stanley Baldwin (November 4, 1924 - April 12, 1927)

Nation

British Polities

Neighbouring Nations


See also Edit

References Edit

  1. The United States Department of State - Background Note: United Kingdom

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