|Constituent country of the United Kingdom|
|- 1921-1922||George V|
|- 1921-1922||Viscount FitzAlan|
|- 1922||W. T. Cosgrave|
|- Upper house||Senate|
|- Lower house||House of Commons|
|- May 3, 1921||Government of Ireland Act|
|- December 6, 1921||Anglo-Irish Treaty|
|- December 6, 1922||Constitution of the Irish Free State|
|Ireland||Irish Free State |
Southern Ireland was a constituent country of the United Kingdom established on May 3, 1921. The Government of Ireland Act (₳|₩) divided Ireland into Southern and Northern Ireland. Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty on Anglo-Irish Treaty on December 6, 1921 it came to be replaced by the Irish Free State.
Nationalism was and is a potent populist force in Irish politics. A home rule bill passed in 1914, but its implementation was suspended until war in Europe ended. Believing the mantra: "England's problem is Ireland's opportunity," and tapping into a mood of Gaelic revivalism, Padraic Pearse and James Connolly led the unsuccessful Easter Rising of 1916. Pearse and the other 1916 leaders declared an independent Irish Republic, but a lack of popular support doomed the rebellion, which lasted a week and destroyed large portions of Dublin. The decision by the British military government to execute the leaders of the rebellion, coupled with the British Government's threat of conscripting the Irish to fight in the Great War, alienated public opinion and produced massive support for Sinn Féin in the 1918 general election. Under the leadership of Eamon de Valera, the elected Sinn Féin deputies constituted themselves as the first Dáil. Tensions only increased: British attempts to smash Sinn Féin ignited the Anglo-Irish War (₳|₩) of 1919-1921.
The end of the war brought the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State of 26 counties within the British Commonwealth and recognized the partition of the island into Ireland and Northern Ireland, although this was supposedly a temporary measure. The six predominantly Protestant counties of northeast Ulster (₳|₩) - Northern Ireland - remained a part of the United Kingdom with limited self-government. A significant Irish minority repudiated the treaty settlement because of the continuance of subordinate ties to the British monarch and the partition of the island. This opposition led to further hostilities - a civil war (1922-23), which was won by the pro-treaty forces.
- George V (₩) (May 3, 1921 - December 6, 1922)
- Viscount FitzAlan (₩) (May 3, 1921 - December 6, 1922)
- W. T. Cosgrave (₩) (August 12, 1922 - December 6, 1922)
- Ireland (British)
British Polities in Ireland
- Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1649-1660)
- Kingdom of England: Kingdom of Ireland (1541-1801)
- Ireland (1801-1921)
- Northern Ireland (1921-1972)
- Northern Ireland (From 1972)
- Treaty Ports (1922-1938)