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جمهورية السودان
Jumhūrīyat al Sūdān

Republic of the Sudan

Federation
Flag of the United Kingdom 1956–2011 Flag of Sudan
Flag of South Sudan
Flag of Sudan Emblem of Sudan
Motto
النصر لنا
Victory is Ours
Anthem
نحن جند لله جند الوطن
We are the army of God and of our land
Map of Sudan
CapitalKhartoum
Government Presidential republic
President
- 2011Omar al-Bashir
Legislature National Legislature
- Upper houseCouncil of States
- Lower houseNational Assembly
History
January 1, 1956Established
January 9, 2005Current constitution
July 8, 2011Cesession of South Sudan
Area2,505,813 km²
Population
- 200943,939,598
 Density17.5/km²
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 108.3 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 2,464.901
CurrencySudanese pound
Flag of the United Kingdom Sudan North Sudan Flag of Sudan
South Sudan Flag of South Sudan
v

The Republic of the Sudan is a country Africa, which was established on January 1, 1956. On July 9, 2011 the southern part of Sudan gained independence for itself as the Republic of South Sudan.


Background

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union on 31 December 2007. As of early 2009, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.[1]

Economy

Since 1997, Sudan has been working with the IMF to implement macroeconomic reforms including a managed float of the exchange rate and a large reserve of foreign exchange. A new currency, the Sudanese Pound, was introduced in January 2007 at an initial exchange rate of $1.00 equals 2 Sudanese Pounds. Sudan began exporting crude oil in the last quarter of 1999 and the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment until the second half of 2008. The Darfur conflict, the aftermath of two decades of civil war in the south, the lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and a reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years to come despite rapid rises in average per capita income. Sudan's real GDP expanded by 5.2% during 2010, an improvement over 2009's 4.2% growth but significantly below the more that 10% per year growth experienced prior to the global financial crisis in 2006 and 2007. While the oil sector continues to drive growth, services and utilities play an increasingly important role in the economy with agriculture production remaining important as it employs 80% of the work force and contributes a third of GDP. In the lead up to the referendum on southern secession, which took place in January 2011, Sudan saw its currency depreciate considerably on the black market with the Central Bank's official rate also losing value as the Sudanese people started to hoard foreign currency. The Central Bank of Sudan intervened heavily in the currency market to defend the value of the pound and the Sudanese government introduced a number of measures to restrain excess local demand for hard currency, but uncertainty about the secession has meant that foreign exchange remains in heavy demand.[2]

President

  • Omar al-Bashir () (January 1, 2011 - July 8, 2011)



Nation

Sudanese Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview

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