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Republic of Namibia

Flag of Namibia Coat of Arms of Namibia
Motto
Unity, Liberty, Justice
Anthem
Namibia, Land of the Brave
Map of Namibia
CapitalWindhoek
Government Republic
President
- From 2011Hifikepunye Pohamba
Prime Minister
- From 2011Nahas Angula
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseNational Council
- Lower houseNational Assembly
History
March 21, 1990Established
Commonwealth accessionMarch 21, 1990
Area825,418 km²
Population
- 20092,108,665
 Density2.5/km²
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 13.9 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 6,614
CurrencyNamibian dollar
Flag of the Union of South Africa South-West Africa
v

The Republic of Namibia is a state in Southern Africa.


Background

South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990. Hifikepunye POHAMBA was elected president in November 2004 in a landslide victory replacing Sam NUJOMA who led the country during its first 14 years of self rule. POHAMBA was reelected in November 2009.[1]

Economy

The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 8% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa, the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium, and the producer of large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. The mining sector employs only about 3% of the population while about 35-40% of the population depends on subsistence agriculture for its livelihood. Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years food shortages are a major problem in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, hides one of the world's most unequal income distributions, as shown by Namibia's GINI coefficient. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Until 2010, Namibia drew 40% of its budget revenues from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). Increased payments from SACU put Namibia's budget into surplus in 2007 for the first time since independence. SACU allotments to Namibia increased in 2009, but will drop for 2010 and 2011 because South Africa went into recession during the global economic crisis, reducing overall SACU income. Increased fish production and mining of zinc, copper, uranium, and silver spurred growth in 2003-08, but growth in recent years was undercut by poor fish catches, higher costs of producing metals, and the global recession.[2]

President

  • Hifikepunye Pohamba () (January 1, 2011 - )


Prime Minister

  • Nahas Angula () (January 1, 2011 - )

Nation

Namibian Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview

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