République du Mali
Mali ka Fasojamana

Republic of Mali

Flag of Mali Emblem of Mali
Un peuple, un but, une foi
One people, one goal, one faith
Le Mali
Map of Mali
Tuareg rebellion:
Azawad (2012)
Government Semi-presidential republic
Head of state
- 2002-2012Amadou Toumani Touré
- 2012Amadou Haya Sanogo
- From 2012Dioncounda Traoré
Prime Minister
- 2011-2012Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé
- 2012Vacant
- From 2012Cheick Modibo Diarra
Legislature National Assembly
August 20, 1960End of Mali Federation
September 22, 1960Republic of Mali
March 22, 2012Coup d'etat
April 6, 2012Azawad declares independence
Area1,240,192 km²
- 200914,517,176
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 18.1 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 1,251
CurrencyWest African CFA franc
Flag of Mali Federation Mali Federation

The Republic of Mali is a semi-presidential republic in Western Africa.


The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. A military coup overthrew the government in March 2012, claiming that the government had not adequately supported the Malian army's fight against an advancing Tuareg-led rebellion in the north. Heavy international pressure has forced coup leaders to accelerate the transition back to democratic rule and, to that end, Dioncounda TRAORE was installed as interim president on 12 April.[1]


Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government in 2011 completed an IMF extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify foreign exchange revenue away from gold. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010.[2]

Head of state

  • Amadou Toumani Touré () (June 8, 2002 - March 22, 2012)
  • Amadou Haya Sanogo () (March 22, 2012 - April 12, 2012)
  • Dioncounda Traoré () (April 12, 2012 - )

Prime Minister

  • Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé () (April 3, 2011 - March 22, 2012)
  • Vacant () (March 22, 2012 - April 17, 2012)
  • Cheick Modibo Diarra () (April 17, 2012 - )


Malian Polities

Neighbouring Nations


  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview

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