Република Македонија
Republika Makedonija

Republic of Macedonia

Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Coat of Arms of the Republic of Macedonia
Денес над Македонија
Today over Macedonia
Map of the Republic of Macedonia
Government Republic and parliamentary democracy
- From 2009Gjorge Ivanov
Prime minister
- From 2006Nikola Gruevski
Legislature Assembly of the Republic
September 8, 1991Declaration of Independence
Area25,713 km²
- 20092,114,550
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 19.7 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 9,350
CurrencyMacedonian denar
Flag of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
Flag of SR Macedonia Macedonia

The Republic of Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy in the Balkans.


Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. Fully implementing the Framework Agreement and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made on both fronts over the past several years.[1]


Having a small, open economy makes Macedonia vulnerable to economic developments in Europe and dependent on regional integration and progress toward EU membership for continued economic growth. At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. Since then, Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains high at 33%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20% of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics. In the wake of the global economic downturn, Macedonia has experienced decreased foreign direct investment, lowered credit, and a large trade deficit, but the financial system remained sound. Macroeconomic stability was maintained by a prudent monetary policy, which kept the domestic currency at the pegged level against the euro, at the expense of raising interest rates. As a result, GDP fell in 2009. but returned to positive in 2010.[2]


  • Gjorge Ivanov () (May 2, 2009 - )

Prime minister

  • Nikola Gruevski () (August 27, 2006 - )


Macedonian Polities

Macedonian Polities

Neighbouring Nations


  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview