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الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Flag of the Libyan Arab Republic 1977–2011 Flag of the Kingdom of Libya
Flag of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Coat of Arms of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Anthem
Allahu Akbar
God is the Greatest
Map of Libya
CapitalTripoli
Government Socialist republic
Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution
- 1977-2011Muammar al-Gaddafi
Secretary General of the General People's Congress
- 2010-2011Mohamed Abdul Quasim al-Zwai
Secretary General of the General People's Committee
- 2006-2011Baghdadi Mahmudi
Legislature General People's Congress
History
March 2, 1977Established
February 17, 20112011 Libyan uprising
August 22, 2011Fall of Tripoli
October 20, 2011Death of Gaddafi
Area1,759,541 km²
Population
- 20106,420,000
 Density3.6/km²
GDP2010 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 95.5 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 14,884
CurrencyDinar
Flag of the Libyan Arab Republic Libya Libya Flag of the Kingdom of Libya
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The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977-2011) was a socialist republic in Northern Africa. In the spring of 2011 the regime of Muammar Gaddafi in Libya was challenged by the National Transitional Council of the Libyan Republic, a rebel movement that had established itself in the city of Benghazi, in the eastern part of the country. Under the aegis of NATO air power the rebel forces conquered city after city until it overran the capital of Tripoli in late summer of the same year, and thereby shattering whatever authority that remained of the Gaddafi regime.


Background

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system was a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and was supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI subsequently made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In August 2008, the US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive claims settlement agreement to compensate claimants in both countries who allege injury or death at the hands of the other country, including the Lockerbie bombing, the LaBelle disco bombing, and the UTA 772 bombing. In October 2008, the US Government received $1.5 billion pursuant to the agreement to distribute to US national claimants, and as a result effectively normalized its bilateral relationship with Libya. The two countries then exchanged ambassadors for the first time since 1973 in January 2009. Libya in May 2010 was elected to its first three-year seat on the UN Human Rights Council, prompting protests from international non-governmental organizations and human rights campaigners. Unrest that began in several Near Eastern and North African countries in late December 2010 spread to several Libyan cities in early 2011. As of early March, the Transitional National Council (TNC) was formed in Benghazi with the stated aim of overthrowing the QADHAFI regime and guiding the country on an interim basis through the transition to democracy. In response to QADHAFI's harsh military crackdown on protesters, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1973, which demanded an immediate ceasefire and authorized the international community to establish a no-fly zone over Libya. After several months of see-saw fighting, anti-Qadhafi forces in August 2011 captured the capital, Tripoli. In mid-September, the UN General Assembly voted to recognize the TNC as the legitimate interim governing body of Libya.[1]

Economy

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, and 80% of government revenue. The weakness in world hydrocarbon prices in 2009 reduced Libyan government tax income and constrained economic growth. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. The process of lifting US unilateral sanctions began in the spring of 2004; all sanctions were removed by June 2006, helping Libya attract greater foreign direct investment, especially in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Corporation (NOC) set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2012. In November 2009, the NOC announced that that target may slip to as late as 2017. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.[2]

Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution

  • Muammar al-Gaddafi () (March 2, 1977 - August 22, 2011)

Secretary General of the General People's Congress

  • Mohamed Abdul Quasim al-Zwai () (January 26, 2010 - August 22, 2011)

Secretary General of the General People's Committee

  • Baghdadi Mahmudi () (March 5, 2006 - August 22, 2011)

Nation

Libyan Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview

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