Nihil Sine Deo
Nothing without God
Long live the King
|- 1881-1914||Carol I|
|- 1914-1918||Ferdinand I|
|President of the Council of Ministers|
|- 1881||Ion Brătianu|
|- Upper house||Senate|
|- Lower house||Chamber of Deputies|
|- March 13, 1881||Kingdom established|
|- December 1, 1918||Territorial expansion|
The Kingdom of Romania (1881-1918) was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern Europe.
In 1866, Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was chosen prince of Romania by a constituent assembly elected under universal suffrage. This body at the same time drew up a constitution, which remains in force, though modified in 1879 and 1884. In 1881, Prince Charles was proclaimed king. As he proved childless, the succession was accepted by his brother, Prince Leopold, on behalf of his son William; and in 1888 William renounced his claim in favour of Ferdinand his younger brother. Thus the monarchy became hereditary in the family of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. No woman may ascend the throne; and, in default of a male heir, the representatives of the people can choose a king among the royal families of western Europe.
Parliament consists of a senate, elected for eight years, and a chamber of deputies, elected for four years. Senators must be forty years old and possess an income of 9400 lei (£376). They are chosen by two colleges of electors; one composed of citizens with an income of £80; the other, of citizens with incomes varying from £32 to £80. The heir-apparent, the two archbishops, the six bishops and the rectors of both universities, sit ex officio in the senate. For the chamber of deputies, all citizen taxpayers of full age may vote, being organized for the purpose into three colleges. All persons with an income of £50 vote in the first; all residents in an urban commune who pay taxes amounting to sixteen shillings yearly, with those who have been through the primary course of education, and all members of the liberal professions, retired officers and state pensioners, vote in the second. The third college is formed of the remaining taxpayers. Those who can read and write vote directly, the rest indirectly. Every fifty indirect electors choose a delegate, who votes along with the direct electors. The naturalization of Jews and Moslems is hedged about by many technical difficulties, and requires a separate vote of the legislature in every individual case. Deputies must be not less than twenty-five years of age. Both senators and deputies receive 20 lei for each day of actual attendance, and travel free on the railways. The king may temporarily veto any measure passed by parliament. Executive power is vested in a council under the presidency of a prime minister, and representing the ministers of foreign affairs; justice; the interior; religion and education; war; finance; agriculture, trade, industry and public domains; and public works. Entire liberty of speech, assembly and the press is guaranteed by the constitution, by which also the titles and privileges of the boiars or nobles were abolished.
For purposes of local government, Romania is divided into 32 departments, each controlled by a prefect, and subdivided into sub-prefectures and communes. The sub-prefectures (plasii) correspond with the French arrondissements. Prefects and subprefects are appointed by the state, but the chief civic officials are elected. Very heavy octroi duties provide the means of municipal administration.
- Carol I (₩) (March 13, 1881 - October 10, 1914)
- Ferdinand I (₩) (October 10, 1914 - December 1, 1918)
President of the Council of Ministers
- Ion Brătianu (₩) (March 13, 1881 - April 19, 1881)
- Romania (From 1989)
- Socialist Republic of Romania (1965-1989)
- Soviet Union: Romanian Popular Republic (1947-1965)
- Kingdom of Romania (1938-1947)
- Kingdom of Romania (1918-1938)
- United Romanian Principalities
- Principality of Moldavia
- Principality of Wallachia