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Regno d'Italia
Kingdom of Italy

Flag of None
Flag of None
Flag of None
Flag of the States of the Church
1861–1922 Flag of the Kingdom of Italy
Flag of the Kingdom of Italy Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Italy
Motto
FERT FERT FERT
Anthem
Marcia Reale
Map of the Kingdom of Italy
CapitalRome
Government Constitutional monarchy
King
- 1861-1878Victor Emmanuel II
- 1878-1900Umberto I
- 1900-1922Victor Emmanuel III
Prime Minister
- 1861Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour
- 1861-1862Bettino Ricasoli
- 1862Urbano Rattazzi
- 1862-1863Luigi Carlo Farini
- 1863-1864Marco Minghetti
- 1864-1866Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseSenate
- Lower houseChamber of Deputies
History
November 10, 1859 Treaty of Zürich
March 17, 1861Proclamation in Turin
November 4, 1918WW I Armistice
October 28, 1922Fascist Take Over
June 2, 1946Constitutional referendum
Population
- 186122,182,000
CurrencyItalian lira
Flag of None Kingdom of Sardinia
Flag of None Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Flag of None Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia
Flag of the States of the Church Papal States
Fascist Italy Flag of the Kingdom of Italy
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The Kingdom of Italy was a constitutional monarchy established in 1861. It represented the unification of Italy by uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia, the Two Sicilies, Lombardy-Venetia and the Papal States. In 1922 Benito Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy, and under his political leadership the government of Italy developed into a fascist dictatorship. In 1946 Italy held a referendum which abolished the monarchy, and which established the Italian Republic.

GovernmentEdit

Italy is a constitutional monarchy, in which the executive power belongs exclusively to the sovereign, while the legislative power is shared by him with the parliament. He holds supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honors, has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the parliament. Treaties with foreign powers, however, must have the consent of parliament. The sovereign is irresponsible, the ministers, the signature of one of whom is required to give validity to royal decrees, being responsible. Parliament consists of two chambers, the senate and the Chamber of Deputies, which are nominally on an equal footing, though practically the elective chamber is the more important. The senate consists of princes of the blood who have attained their majority, and of an unlimited number of senators above forty years of age, who are qualified under any one of twenty-one specified categories by having either held high office, or attained celebrity in science, literature, etc. In 1908 there were 318 senators exclusive of five members of the royal family. Nomination is by the king for life. Besides its legislative functions, the senate is the highest court of justice in the case of political offences or the impeachment of ministers. The deputies to the lower house are 508 in number, i.e. one to every 64,893 of the population, and all the constituencies are single-member constituencies. The party system is not really strong. The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2,500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 150,000 inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, 16s. of rent; or by being sharers in the profits of farms on which not less than 3, 4s. of direct (including provincial) taxation is paid; or by paying not less than 16 in direct (including provincial) taxation. Others, e.g. members of the professional classes, are qualified to vote by their position. The number of electors (2,541,327) at the general election in 1904 was 29% of the male population over twenty-one years of age, and 7~6% of the total population exclusive of those temporarily disfranchised on account of military service; and of these 62,7% voted. No candidate can be returned unless he obtains more than half the votes given and more than one-sixth of the total number on the register; otherwise a second ballot must be held. Nor can he be returned under the age of thirty, and he must be qualified as an elector. All salaried government officials (except ministers, undersecretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, are disqualified for election. Senators and deputies receive no salary but have free passes on railways throughout Italy and on certain lines of steamers. Parliaments are quinquennial, but the king may dissolve the Chamber of Deputies at any time, being bound, however, to convoke a new chamber within four months. The executive must call parliament together annually. Each of the chambers has the right of introducing new bills, as has also the government; but all money bills must originate in the Chamber of Deputies. The consent of both chambers and the assent of the king is necessary to their being passed. Ministers may attend the debates of either house but can only vote in that of which they are members. The sittings of both houses are public, and an absolute majority of the members must be present to make a sitting valid. The ministers are eleven in number and have salaries of about 1,000 each; the presidency of the council of ministers (created in 1889) may be held by itself or (as is usual) in conjunction with any other portfolio.

The ministries are:

  • interior (under whom are the prefects of the several provinces)
  • foreign affairs,
  • treasury (separated from finance in 1889),
  • finance,
  • public works,
  • justice and ecclesiastical affairs,
  • war,
  • marine,
  • public instruction,
  • commerce,
  • industry and agriculture,
  • posts and telegraphs (separated from public works in 1889).

Each minister is aided by an under-secretary of state at a salary of 500. There is a council of state with advisory functions, which can also decide certain questions of administration, especially applications from local authorities and conflicts between ministries, and a court of accounts, which has the right of examining all details of state expenditure. In every country the bureaucracy is abused, with more or less reason, for Unprogressiveness, timidity and red-tape, and Italy is no exception to the rule. The officials are not well paid, and are certainly numerous; while the manifold checks and counterchecks have by no means always been sufficient to prevent dishonesty. [1]

History Edit

By the early 19th century, a nationalist movement developed and led to the reunification of Italy - except for Rome - in the 1860s. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy was proclaimed King of Italy. Rome was incorporated in 1870. From 1870 until 1922, Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament elected under limited suffrage.

During World War I (|), Italy renounced its standing alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary and, in 1915, entered the war on the side of the Allies. Under the postwar settlement, Italy received some former Austrian territory along the northeast frontier. In 1922, Benito Mussolini (|) came to power and, over the next few years, eliminated political parties, curtailed personal liberties, and installed a fascist dictatorship termed the Corporate State.[2]


King

  • Victor Emmanuel II () (March 17, 1861 - January 9, 1878)
  • Umberto I () (January 9, 1878 - July 29, 1900)
  • Victor Emmanuel III () (July 29, 1900 - October 28, 1922)


Prime Minister

  • Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour () (March 17, 1861 - June 7, 1861)
  • Bettino Ricasoli () (June 7, 1861 - March 3, 1862)
  • Urbano Rattazzi () (March 3, 1862 - December 8, 1862)
  • Luigi Carlo Farini () (December 8, 1862 - March 24, 1863)
  • Marco Minghetti () (March 24, 1863 - September 28, 1864)
  • Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora () (September 28, 1864 - June 20, 1866)
  • Bettino Ricasoli () (June 20, 1866 - April 10, 1867)
  • Urbano Rattazzi () (April 10, 1867 - October 27, 1867)
  • Federico Luigi, Conte Menabrea () (October 27, 1867 - December 14, 1869)
  • Giovanni Lanza () (December 14, 1869 - July 10, 1873)
  • Marco Minghetti () (July 10, 1873 - March 25, 1876)
  • Agostino Depretis () (March 25, 1876 - March 24, 1878)
  • Benedetto Cairoli () (March 24, 1878 - December 19, 1878)
  • Agostino Depretis () (December 19, 1878 - July 14, 1879)
  • Benedetto Cairoli () (July 14, 1879 - May 29, 1881)
  • Agostino Depretis () (May 29, 1881 - July 29, 1887)
  • Francesco Crispi () (July 29, 1887 - February 6, 1891)
  • Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì () (February 6, 1891 - May 15, 1892)
  • Giovanni Giolitti () (May 15, 1892 - December 15, 1893)
  • Francesco Crispi () (December 15, 1893 - March 10, 1896)
  • Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì () (March 10, 1896 - June 29, 1898)
  • Luigi Pelloux () (June 29, 1898 - June 24, 1900)
  • Giuseppe Saracco () (June 24, 1900 - February 15, 1901)
  • Giuseppe Zanardelli () (February 15, 1901 - November 3, 1903)
  • Giovanni Giolitti () (November 3, 1903 - March 12, 1905)
  • Tommaso Tittoni () (March 12, 1905 - March 28, 1905)
  • Alessandro Fortis () (March 28, 1905 - February 8, 1906)
  • Sidney Sonnino () (February 8, 1906 - May 29, 1906)
  • Giovanni Giolitti () (May 29, 1906 - December 11, 1909)
  • Sidney Sonnino () (December 11, 1909 - March 31, 1910)
  • Luigi Luzzatti () (March 31, 1910 - March 30, 1911)
  • Giovanni Giolitti () (March 30, 1911 - March 21, 1914)
  • Antonio Salandra () (March 21, 1914 - June 18, 1916)
  • Paolo Boselli () (June 18, 1916 - October 29, 1917)
  • Vittorio Emanuele Orlando () (October 29, 1917 - June 23, 1919)
  • Francesco Saverio Nitti () (June 23, 1919 - June 15, 1920)
  • Giovanni Giolitti () (June 15, 1920 - July 4, 1921)
  • Ivanoe Bonomi () (July 4, 1921 - February 26, 1922)
  • Luigi Facta () (February 26, 1922 - October 28, 1922)

Nation

Italian Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.)
  2. The United States Department of State - Background Note Italy

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