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الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية
République Islamique de Mauritanie
Republik bu Lislaamu bu Gànnaar

Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Flag of Mauritania Emblem of Mauritania
Motto
شرف إخاء عدل
Honor, Fraternity, Justice
Anthem
National Anthem of Mauritania
Map of Mauritania
CapitalNouakchott
Government Islamic republic
President
- From 2009Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz
Prime Minister
- From 2008Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseSenate
- Lower houseNational Assembly
History
November 28, 1958 Autonomy
November 28, 1960Independence
Area1,030,700 km²
Population
- 20093,069,000
 Density2.9/km²
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 6.4 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 2,093
CurrencyOuguiya
Flag of None Overseas territory of Mauretania
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The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is a republic in Western Africa.


Background

Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA seized power in a coup in 1984 and ruled Mauritania with a heavy hand for more than two decades. A series of presidential elections that he held were widely seen as flawed. A bloodless coup in August 2005 deposed President TAYA and ushered in a military council that oversaw a transition to democratic rule. Independent candidate Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDALLAHI was inaugurated in April 2007 as Mauritania's first freely and fairly elected president. His term ended prematurely in August 2008 when a military junta led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ deposed him and ushered in a military council government. AZIZ was subsequently elected president in July 2009 and sworn in the following month. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions among its black population (Afro-Mauritanians) and white and black Moor (Arab-Berber) communities, and is having to confront a growing terrorism threat by al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).[1]

Economy

Half the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though many of the nomads and subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for nearly 40% of total exports. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. Before 2000, drought and economic mismanagement resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In February 2000, Mauritania qualified for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative and nearly all of its foreign debt has since been forgiven. A new investment code approved in December 2001 improved the opportunities for direct foreign investment. Mauritania and the IMF agreed to a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) arrangement in 2006. Mauritania made satisfactory progress, but the IMF, World Bank, and other international actors suspended assistance and investment in Mauritania after the August 2008 coup. Since the presidential election in July 2009, donors have resumed assistance. Oil prospects, while initially promising, have largely failed to materialize, and the government has placed a priority on attracting private investment to spur economic growth. The Government also emphasizes reduction of poverty, improvement of health and education, and privatization of the economy.[2]

President

  • Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz () (August 5, 2009 - )


Prime Minister

  • Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf () (August 14, 2008 - )

Nation

Mauritanian Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview

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