Poblacht na hÉireann
|President of the Dáil Éireann|
|- 1919||Cathal Brugha|
|- 1919-1922||Éamon de Valera|
|- 1922||Arthur Griffith|
|- 1922||W. T. Cosgrave|
|- April 24, 1916||Proclamation|
|- January 21, 1919||Declaration of Independence|
|- December 6, 1921||Anglo-Irish Treaty|
|- January 7, 1922||Treaty adopted by the Dáil Éireann|
|- December 6, 1922||Constitution of the Irish Free State|
|- December 7, 1922||Disestablished|
|- December 8, 1922||Northern Ireland opts out|
|Ireland||Irish Free State|
The British authorities divided the island and tried to replace it with the two autonomous regions of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. This solution was not acceptable to the republicans, but the Anglo-Irish Treaty on December 6, 1921 resulted in a compromise that established the Irish Free State in the south.
The north of the island would remain within the United Kingdom, but the south would be allowed to break off to form a free state under the British monarch, separate from the United Kingdom. On the December 6, 1922 the Constitution of the Irish Free State was adopted.
Nationalism was and is a potent populist force in Irish politics. A home rule bill passed in 1914, but its implementation was suspended until war in Europe ended. Believing the mantra: "England's problem is Ireland's opportunity," and tapping into a mood of Gaelic revivalism, Padraic Pearse and James Connolly led the unsuccessful Easter Rising of 1916. Pearse and the other 1916 leaders declared an independent Irish republic, but a lack of popular support doomed the rebellion, which lasted a week and destroyed large portions of Dublin. The decision by the British military government to execute the leaders of the rebellion, coupled with the British Government's threat of conscripting the Irish to fight in the Great War, alienated public opinion and produced massive support for Sinn Féin in the 1918 general election. Under the leadership of Eamon de Valera, the elected Sinn Féin deputies constituted themselves as the first Dáil. Tensions only increased: British attempts to smash Sinn Féin ignited the Anglo-Irish War of 1919-1921.
The end of the war brought the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921, which established the Ireland of 26 counties within the British Commonwealth and recognized the partition of the island into Ireland and Northern Ireland, although this was supposedly a temporary measure. The six predominantly Protestant counties of northeast Ulster (₳|₩) - Northern Ireland - remained a part of the United Kingdom with limited self-government. A significant Irish minority repudiated the treaty settlement because of the continuance of subordinate ties to the British monarch and the partition of the island. This opposition led to further hostilities - a civil war (1922-23), which was won by the pro-treaty forces.
- Proclamation (24 April 1916)
- Declaration of Independence (January 21, 1919)
- Anglo-Irish Treaty (December 6, 1921)
- Treaty adopted by the Dáil Éireann (January 7, 1922)
- Constitution of the Irish Free State (December 6, 1922)
- Disestablished (December 7, 1922)
- Northern Ireland opts out (December 8, 1922)
President of the Dáil Éireann
- Cathal Brugha (₩) (January 22, 1919 - April 1, 1919)
- Éamon de Valera (₩) (April 1, 1919 - January 9, 1922)
- Arthur Griffith (₩) (January 9, 1922 - August 12, 1922)
- W. T. Cosgrave (₩) (August 12, 1922 - December 7, 1922)
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Irish Free State (1922-1937)
- Ireland (1937-1949)
- Ireland: Republic of Ireland (From 1949)