Saorstát Éireann
Irish Free State

Dominion of the ‌United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom
Flag of Ireland
1922–1937 Flag of Ireland
Flag of Ireland Seal of the Irish Free State
Location Ireland 1922
Northern Ireland (1922) Flag of the United Kingdom
Government Contitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy
King of Ireland
- 1922-1936George V
- 1936Edward VIII
- 1936-1937George VI
- 1922-1928Timothy Michael Healy
- 1928-1932James McNeill
- 1932Vacant
- 1932-1936Domhnall Ua Buachalla
President of the Executive Council
- 1922-1932W. T. Cosgrave
- 1932-1937Éamon de Valera
Legislature Oireachtas
- Upper houseSeanad Éireann
- Lower houseDáil Éireann
December 6, 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty
December 6, 1922Constitution of the Irish Free State
December 7, 1922Irish Republic disestablised
December 8, 1922Northern Ireland leaves
December 11, 1931Statute of Westminster
December 29, 1937Constitution of Ireland
April 18, 1949Republic of Ireland Act
Commonwealth accessionDecember 11, 1931
Area70,273 km²
- 19362,960,000
CurrencySaorstát pound
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Ireland Irish Republic
Ireland Flag of Ireland

The Irish Free State was established following the Anglo-Irish Treaty on December 6, 1921. By the Constitution of the Irish Free State on December 6, 1921 it replaced the Irish Republic and Southern Ireland, making it a separate state from the United Kingdom.

King George V was still the head of state, and now being represented by a Governor-General in Dublin, while the head of the Irish government held the title of President of the Executive Council.

The new Constitution of Ireland which was adopted on December 29, 1937, established new political institutions and adopted "Éire" or "Ireland" as a new name for the state. Even if the post as Governor-General was abolished, and a new Irish presidency was introduced it did not formally abolish the monarchy, thereby retaining the British monarchs as de jure heads of state.

History Edit

The end of the Anglo-Irish War (|) brought the Anglo-Irish Treaty (|) of 1921, which established the Irish Free State of 26 counties within the British Commonwealth and recognized the partition of the island into Ireland and Northern Ireland, although this was supposedly a temporary measure. The six predominantly Protestant counties of northeast Ulster (|) - Northern Ireland - remained a part of the United Kingdom with limited self-government. A significant Irish minority repudiated the treaty settlement because of the continuance of subordinate ties to the British monarch and the partition of the island. This opposition led to further hostilities--a civil war (1922-23), which was won by the pro-treaty forces.

In 1932, Eamon de Valera, the political leader of the forces initially opposed to the treaty, became Prime Minister, and a new Irish constitution was enacted in 1937. The last British military bases were soon withdrawn, and the Treaty Ports were returned to Irish control. Ireland was neutral in World War II (|). The government formally declared Ireland a republic in 1948; however, it does not normally use the term "Republic of Ireland", which tacitly acknowledges the partition, but refers to the country simply as "Ireland".[1]

Events Edit

  • Anglo-Irish Treaty (December 6, 1921)
  • Constitution of the Irish Free State (December 6, 1922)
  • Irish Republic disestablised (December 7, 1922)
  • Northern Ireland leaves (December 8, 1922)
  • Constitution of Ireland (December 29, 1937)
  • Republic of Ireland Act (April 18, 1949)

King of Ireland Edit

  • George V (1922-36)
  • Edward VIII (1936)
  • George VI (1936-37)

Governor-General of IrelandEdit

  • Timothy Michael Healy (1922–27)
  • James McNeill (1928–32)
  • Domhnall Ua Buachalla (1932–36)

President of the Executive CouncilEdit

  • W. T. Cosgrave (1921–22)
  • Michael Collins (1922–32)
  • Éamon de Valera (1932–37)


Irish Polities

Neighbouring Nations


  1. The United States Department of State - Background Note: Ireland