Commonwealth realm
Flag of Canada Coat of Arms of Canada
A Mari Usque Ad Mare
O Canada
God Save the Queen
Map of Canada
Government Constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy
- From 1952Elizabeth II
Governor General
- From 2010David Lloyd Johnston
Prime Minister
- From 2006Stephen Harper Prime Minister
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseSenate
- Lower houseHouse of Commons
July 1, 1867British North America Acts
December 11, 1931Statute of Westminster
April 17, 1982Canada Act
Commonwealth accessionDecember 11, 1931
Area9,984,670 km²
- 201134,374,000
GDP2011 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 1,341.8 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 39,037
CurrencyCanadian Dollar
Flag of the United Kingdom Canada
Flag of New Brunswick New Brunswick
Flag of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia
Flag of None North-Western Territories
Flag of None Prince Rupert's Land
Flag of None Colony of British Columbia
Flag of the Dominion of Newfoundland Newfoundland

Canada is a constitutional monarchy in North America.


A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, and education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.[1]


As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. During 2010, Canada's economy grew only 3%, due to decreased global demand and a highly valued Canadian dollar.[2]


  • Elizabeth II () (February 6, 1952 - )

Governor General

  • David Lloyd Johnston () (October 1, 2010 - )

Prime Minister

  • Stephen Harper Prime Minister () (February 6, 2006 - )


Canadian Polities

Neighbouring Nations


  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview

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