Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland

Flag of England
Flag of Scotland
Flag of None
1649–1660 Flag of England
Flag of Scotland
Irish banner
Flag of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth
Great Britain and Ireland
Government Republic
Head of State
- 1649-1653Council of State
- 1653-1659Lord Protector
- 1659-1660Council of State
Lord Protector
- 1653-1658Oliver Cromwell
- 1658-1659Richard Cromwell
Lord President
- 1653-1659Henry Lawrence
Legislature Parliament
- 1642 English Civil War
May 19, 1649Established
December 16, 1653Instrument of Government
May 25, 1659Lord Protector resigns
April 4, 1660Declaration of Breda
CurrencyPound sterling
Flag of England England
Flag of Scotland Scotland
Flag of None Confederate Ireland
England Flag of England
Scotland Flag of Scotland
Ireland Irish banner

The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1649-1660) was a republican system of government that replaced the monarchy during the British interregnum. In 1653 Oliver Cromwell attained the post of Lord Protector and as such was the head of state of the Commonwealth. In 1660 after the death of Cromwell the monarchy was restored and Charles II reinstated to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Head of State

  • Council of State () (May 19, 1649 - December 16, 1653)
  • Lord Protector () (December 16, 1653 - May 7, 1659)
  • Council of State () (May 7, 1659 - April 4, 1660)

Lord Protector

  • Oliver Cromwell () (December 16, 1653 - September 3, 1658)
  • Richard Cromwell () (September 3, 1658 - May 7, 1659)

Lord President

  • Henry Lawrence () (December 16, 1653 - May 7, 1659)


British Polities

Neighbouring Nations


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